Ecology is the study and interactions between living things in relation to their environment. Ecological organisation increase in size and complexity from population to community to ecosystem to biosphere
Biosphere is the thin outer shell of the earth where living organisms can exist. Biosphere includes lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Habitat of an organism is the place where it lives. A niche is the functional status of the organism within the ecosystem as a result of its adaptation, behaviour, feeding habits, etc.
Population is a collection of organisms the same specie occupying a particular space. A community consists of the population of defferent kinds of organisms interacting together in a habitat.
Ecosystem is a self supporting Ecological unit made up of biotic and a biotic components. Various ecosystems constitute the Biosphere.
Biomes are large terrestrial ecosystems consisting of plants and animals living naturally together. Biomes are identified by their dominant vegetations. Biomes in Nigeria include mangrove swamps, tropical forests and savanna land.
Population studies and Abiotic Factors
Population studies in a habitat involve finding out the types of organisms that are there dominant species, and the characteristic features of each population e.g. Size, density, frequency, distribution and percentage cover.
Sampling techniques used in studying populations include quadrat and transect methods.
Plants specimens are preserved and kept in a herbarium while animals can be maintained in an aquaria or vivaria.
Abiotic factors common to habitats include rainfall, temperature, light, wind, pH and pressure. Salinity, turbidity, dissolved gases, currents and the bed of the water body are aquatic-abiotic factors. The terrestrial factors are relative humidity, evaporation, fire and soil.
Abotic factors are studied in various ways