Our knowledge of biology is pre-requisite to the advancement of agriculture most especially in the effort to produce food for the increasing population.
Biology provides a basis for the classification of plants, thus, plants are classified using botanical classification, agriculture classification as well as classification based on life cycle.
Agricultural activities such as bush burning, tillage, grazing, use of fertilisers, herbicides, and pesticides upset the natural ecosystem.
Crop pests include insects, weeds and other animals. Crop disease are caused either by fungi, bacteria or virus.
Important diseases of crops include the rust, blight and smut. Ectoparasite which are mainly insects (e.g. Ticks, rhinoceros beetle), and roundworms etc. are pests of farm animals.
Agricultural pests are controlled by the following methods :
- Biological control
- Physical control
- Chemical control
Food availability is dependent on the availability of arable land, farm yields and preservative methods. Increase in yield can be achieved by maintaining soil fertility, controlling pests and diseases as well as using improved crop varieties and Livestock breeds.
Food can be preserved by refrigeration, heating, use of chemicals, drying, osmotic method, canning/bottling, smoking, processing, irradiation and freeze drying.
Human population is on the increase thus creating a problem of food shortage most especially in developing countries. Growth in population is affected by natality end mortality rates.
Population can be controlled through family planning programmes while increased food production can solve the problem of food shortage.